Symbol Platinum

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Platin ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine hohe Dichte und ist ein kostbares, schmiedbares, dehnbares, grau-weißes Übergangsmetall. Es besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und. Platin (Deutschland: [ˈplaːtiːn], Österreich: [ plaˈtiːn]) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine. File:Platinum-symbol pc-boeken.nl ist eine vektorisierte Version dieses Bildes. Diese sollte an Stelle des Rasterbildes verwendet werden, sofern sie nicht schlechter ist. Platin ist ein chemisches Element im Periodensystem der Elemente mit dem Symbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Platin ist ein schweres, schmiedbares. Das chemische Symbol für Platin im Periodensystem ist Pt. In Wirklichkeit ist diese Geringschätzung keineswegs gerechtfertigt, verfügt Platin doch über.

Symbol Platinum

File:Platinum-symbol pc-boeken.nl ist eine vektorisierte Version dieses Bildes. Diese sollte an Stelle des Rasterbildes verwendet werden, sofern sie nicht schlechter ist. Platin ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine hohe Dichte und ist ein kostbares, schmiedbares, dehnbares, grau-weißes Übergangsmetall. Es besitzt eine bemerkenswerte Korrosionsbeständigkeit und. Platinum Hebelzertifikate (ISIN XC / WKN pc-boeken.nl). Chart von Platin Future Optionsschein Put /12 (VON) Symbol, VE1JQY.

Symbol Platinum Video

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Symbol Platinum Video

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It exhibits a remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and as such is considered a noble metal. As a result, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum.

Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts.

It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in that it became investigated by scientists.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry.

Because only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, it is a scarce material, and is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.

Being a heavy metal, it leads to health issues upon exposure to its salts, but due to its corrosion resistance, it is not as toxic as some metals.

Compounds containing platinum, most notably cisplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer. Graphical characteristics: Symmetric , Closed shape , Monochrome , Contains both straight and curved lines , Has no crossing lines.

Category: Alchemical Symbols. Platinum is part of the Mundane Elements group. Edit this symbol. Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.

Rate this symbol: 3. The alchemical symbol for platinum was made by joining the symbols of silver and gold.

The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy.

Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture circa BC - AD , but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation.

The resulting gold-platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities.

Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.

Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal.

In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In , Charles Wood, [53] a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.

In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.

In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.

Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.

Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.

Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.

Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.

Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.

Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron. This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals.

This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle.

Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain.

Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.

During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.

If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities. Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.

Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture.

Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum. Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them.

Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum. One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia , in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.

The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron II chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride.

Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. The remaining The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black.

It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen. Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter , which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds.

PtO 2 , also known as Adams' catalyst , is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. From to , the meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium alloy bar, known as the international prototype of the meter.

The previous bar was made of platinum in Until May , the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram , a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.

Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches which they term patina as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.

In watchmaking , Vacheron Constantin , Patek Philippe , Rolex , Breitling , and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series.

Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative to gold.

During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty, [72] the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold.

Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.

In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples.

Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets.

Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver.

It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies.

As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.

The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Platinum disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number See also: Platinum group.

Main article: Isotopes of platinum. Main articles: Platinum as an investment and Platinum coin.

See also: Platinum album and Platinum color. Chelated platinum Iron—platinum nanoparticle List of countries by platinum production Mixed metal oxide electrode Platinum group Platinum in Africa Platinum nanoparticle Platinum print s commodities boom.

Pure and Applied Chemistry. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 August Dalton Transactions. Chemistry Foundations and Applications.

Thomson Gale. Chaston, Platinum Metals Rev. Macmillan Journals Limited. Archived from the original on 24 March In Lide, David R.

January Handbook of corrosion data. Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate IV. Inorganic Syntheses. Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

New Scientist. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: Chemical, industries and occupations. International Labour Organization.

ASTM International. Alaska Community Database Online. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 12 April Minerals Engineering.

Grant Cawthorn Platinum Metals Review. Retrieved 24 December Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 9 September July Archived PDF from the original on 7 July Retrieved 17 July The Hindu.

Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 6 December Meteorites: flux with time and impact effects.

Greenwood Press. Journal of the American Chemical Society. Inorganic Chemistry. Handbook of Inorganic Compounds. Bibcode : Natur. Inorganica Chimica Acta.

Chemical Communications. Solid State Sciences. Bibcode : SSSci Journal of Physical Chemistry C. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. Chemical Society Reviews.

Saux III 7 July Practical Oncology Protocols. Mill City Press, Incorporated. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 11 June Ruhul; Razzaque, Mohammed S.

Cisplatin-Associated Nephrotoxicity and Pathological Events. Contributions to Nephrology. Hesse Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group.

The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. SAGE Publications.

Symbol Platinum Inhaltsverzeichnis

Schon ein ungefähr prozentiger Platinanteil führt zu einer hellgrauen Farbe. Das Interesse aber war geweckt. Der mit Abstand bedeutendste Platinproduzent ist Südafrika, gefolgt von der Russischen Föderation vor allem nördlicher Ural. Elektronen pro Energieniveau. Weiterhin ist es die katalytische aktive Spezies beim katalytischen Reforming. Goldfälscher nutzten die Tatsache aus, dass Platin das gleiche Gewicht und ähnliche Materialeigenschaften wie Gold hat. File:Platinum-symbol 2. Es besitzt daher Online Spielen Und Geld Gewinnen katalytische Eigenschaften; Wasserstoff und Sauerstoff reagieren in seiner Anwesenheit The Mentalist Staffel 6 Kostenlos Anschauen miteinander zu Wasser. Symbol Platinum

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